Basketball Fouls: Foul Trouble
Players who accumulate too many fouls during the course of a game are said to be in foul trouble. Players who commit five fouls in high school and college or six fouls in the NBA are disqualified or eliminated from that particular game. Teams need to avoid the total number of team fouls reaching more than six in each half. Once they reach this number, the other team is “in the one-and-one” and goes to the charity stripe for all subsequent fouls in that half.
The following is a break-down of some of the most common basketball fouls:
Away-From-the-Play Foul – In the last two minutes of the game, illegal contact by the defense which occurs either deliberately away from the ball, and/or before the ball is released on a throw-in.
Blocking – Physically impeding the progress of another player who is still moving.
Charging – When an offensive player runs into a defender who has established position.
Double Foul – When two opponents commit personal or technical fouls against each other at about the same time.
Elbowing – Throwing your elbows during play in order to hit another player or push him away; it’s a basketball foul if contact is made.
Fighting Foul – When two or more players engage in fighting one another.
Flagrant Foul – Unnecessary or excessive contact against an opponent.
Foul – Actions by players which break the rules but are not floor violations.
Hand-Checking – Using the hands to check the progress of an offensive player when that player is in front of the defender who is using the hands.
Holding – Restricting the movement of an opponent.
Illegal Blocking – Illegal contact which impedes the progress of an opponent.
Illegal Screen – A form of blocking in which the player setting the screen is still moving when the defender makes contact.
Loose Ball Foul – A basketball foul committed while neither team has possession of the ball (such as when going for a rebound).
Offensive Foul – Illegal contact, committed by an offensive player, after the ball is live.
Over-the-Back – Infringing on the vertical plane of, and making contact with, a player who is in position and attempting to rebound.
Personal Foul – Contact which occurs with an opponent after the ball has become live that may result in injury (including a push, hold, trip, hack, elbow, restrain or charge).
Punching – Personal foul where one player punches another.
Pushing – Impeding the progress or otherwise moving a player by pushing or shoving.
Reaching In – Extending an arm and making contact with a ball handler in an attempt to steal the ball.
Team Foul – Each personal foul committed by a player is also counted against his team; when a team goes over the limit, its opponent is awarded free-throw opportunities.
Technical Foul – Misconduct that officials believe are detrimental to the game; can be assessed against team members on the floor or seated on the bench. penalized by a free-throw opportunity to the non-offending team; also called a “T”.
Tripping – Extending a leg or foot and causing an opponent to lose balance or fall.